Stem cells are original cells for the living organism that can differentiate to give many defferent types of cells. In human being,there are two main sources for the stem cells. First, embryonic stem cells that is being abstracted from a specific region of the blastocyst stage of the development called inner cell mass. The second is the adult stem cells which is derived from some tissues of some organs like: brain, blood vessels, bone marrow andt others(1). These adult stem cells has an important function if there is damege in ant tiisue because it has the ability to differentiate to many different types of cells as mentioned before(2).
Medically, stem cells has importance in this field beacuse of its effectiveness in the treatment of some diseases especially the complicated ones like leukemia, lymphoma or anemia and that’s by tranplantation(3). The transplantation is defined as a procedure that take the stem cells and insert it into a patient for therapeutical purpose. There are two types of the donation for the stem cells, the first donor is donor’s stem cells(Allogenic) and the other is the patients’s stem cells(autogenic)(4). Stem cells can be collected from three main resources: bone marrow, peripheral blood vessels and cord blood(1). Bone marrow is the site where the haematopoiesis is formed. Haematopoiesis is process which stem cells can differentiate to form many different type of blood cells. Because that, bone marrow stem cell is taken for the transplant especialy from the pelvic bone marrow where stem cells is concentrated in the adult(2). There are stem cells also in the peripheral blood vessels which is enhanced by the injecting G-CSF into the patient to mobilize these stem cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood and then collect them for transplantation(5) The last source is the cord blood. Cord blood refers to the whole blood collected from the umbilical cord. Cord blood stem cells are collected from mother after delivery.