While umbilical cord blood(UCB) was considered a medical waste, this is no longer the case. It’s now realized that ut holds one of the most readily available sources of stem cells.The first successful cord blood transplantation was carried out in 1988 in a patient with Fanconi anemia. Ever since, umbilical cord blood transplantation(UCBT) has been growing as a viable treatment option in hematologic and oncologic disorders with comparable results to bone marrow and peripheral blood transplantation. In addition, it has the potential to treat disease entities not currently recognized as treatable. The need for bone marrow registries is slowly beginning to decline with the advent and progression of cord blood banking. There are now approximately 142 public cord blood banks and 25 private banks.  Around 25% of collected cord blood units meet the established criteria for storage.