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Publication Details

Title :

Tracing the epidemic history of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Saudi Arabia

Journal:

Infection, Genetics and Evolution

Impact Factor:

2.591

Authors:

Khan A1, Al Balwi M2, AlAyyar L1, AlAbdulkareem I3, Albekairy A4, Aljumah A5.

Affiliations:

1 Department of Medical Genomics Research, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia.

2 Department of Medical Genomics Research, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia; College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: balwim@ngha.med.sa.

3 Health Science Research, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

4 College of Pharmacy, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia.

5 College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia; Department of Hepatobiliary Science, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh 11426, Saudi Arabia.

Year of Publication:

2017

DOI:

10.1016/j.meegid.2017.04.024

Abstract:

HCV genotype 4 is highly prevalent in many Middle Eastern countries, yet little is known about the genotype’s epidemic history at the subtype-level in this region. To address the dearth of data from Saudi Arabia (SA) we genotyped 230 HCV isolates in the core/E- and NS5B-region and analyzed using Bayesian phylogenetic approaches. HCV genotype 4 (HCV/4) was positive in 61.7% (142/230) of isolates belonging to 7 different subtypes with the predominance of 4d (73/142; 51.4%) followed by 4a (51/142; 35.9%). Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a distinct epidemiological cluster of HCV/4d for Saudi Arabia. HCV/1 appeared as the second most prevalent genotype positive in 31.3% (72/230) of isolates with the predominance of 1b (53/72; 73.6%) followed by 1a (16/72; 22.2%), and 1g (3/72; 4.1%). A small proportion of isolates belonged to HCV/3a (12/230; 5.2%), and HCV/2a (4/230; 1.7%). We estimate that the genotype 4 common ancestor existed around 1935 (1850-1985). Genotype 4 originated plausibly in Central Africa and multiple subtypes disseminated across African borders since ~1970, including subtype 4d which dominates current HCV infections in Saudi Arabia. The Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) analysis showed that genotype 4d entered the Saudi population in 1900. The effective number of HCV infections grew gradually until the second half of the 1950s and more rapidly until the early-80s through the use of imported blood units and blood products. Subsequently, the rate of HCV infection in the Saudi Arabian population was stabilized through effective screening of blood and infection control measures.

April 27, 2017