KAIMRC, P.O Box 22490, Riyadh 11426 Saudi Arabia.
+966114294444
+966114294440

Infectious Diseases Research Department

  • Dr. Hanan Balkhy

  • Department
  • About Head
  • Projects
  • Publications
  • Team

The Infectious Disease Section is divided into the following units:

BACTERIOLOGY AND MYCOLOGY
KAIMRC is endeavoring to establish a fully-equipped virology lab that provides comprehensive and innovative virology testing services to our country and the entire Gulf Region. This service will range from viral cultures to molecular typing and sequencing of different viruses. In addition, it shall seek to develop new detection and isolation assays in response to the newly emerging viruses (H1N1 and MERS-CoV) that satisfy our clinical and research needs. While the mycology lab will be targeted towards the end of our first five-year cycle, it will provide mycological research including isolation, identification, and genotyping.

VIROLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY
The goal of this lab is to commission an environmental lab that will serve the purposes of national and international research and focus on the behavior and nature of regional environmental pathogens. Furthermore, we are investigating factors that influence the survival of microbial pathogens in our environment and the potential or means of trans-contamination, ultimately stopping the spread of infection.

BIOSAFETY LABORATORY (BSL3)
The mission of this lab is the inclusion of research projects on emerging BSL3 pathogens such as dengue fever, rift valley and others by using genetic, cellular, and molecular biology approaches. In addition, there is importance associated with the usage of this data to understand the mechanisms of disease and identify drug targets which may culminate with both drug and vaccine development.

ANTIBIOTIC AND VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
Establishing the capacity to develop and improve on pharmaceutical agents as well as immunization products. Our current research is focused in the field of microbiology to monitor the emergence and spread of newly recognized infectious diseases and to investigate outbreaks of well-known microbial infections.

Education

Dr. Hanan Balkhy is a graduate of King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. She completed her pediatric residency at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston USA 1993-1996; followed by a pediatric infectious diseases fellowship training from 1996-1999 from a joint program of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Balkhy is American Board certified in both Pediatrics and Pediatric Infectious Disease.

Experience

Dr. Balkhy is currently the Executive Director, Infection Prevention and Control at the Ministry of National Guard, a corporate department that over sees the infection control functions of five hospitals under the umbrella of the Saudi Ministry of National Guard. She is also the Director of the GCC Center for Infection Control (2005-current) and the WHO CC (2009-current). The impact of these centers has been to enhance and unify practices in the healthcare settings to the best possible standard to ensure patient safety.

Dr. Balkhy is also an Associate Professor of King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science. Teaching and mentoring both medical and nursing students as well as supervising local and international postgraduate students. She is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Infection and Public Health and has over 90 publications in peer reviewed journals. She has also been involved in the organization of many educational symposia and seminars in the field of infection control over the past 16 years, nationally and internationally, including ESCMID, ICPIC, ID Week and others.  Dr. Balkhy is also on several WHO committees including the AGISAR, STAG-AMR, and the IHR RC. Finally she has recently been appointed the Chairman of the Infectious Disease Unit at King Abdullah International Medical Research Center at KAMC which focusses on relevant infectious disease research for emerging public health concerns such as multidrug resistance pathogens, hospital infections, tuberculosis and others and has received a research award from her institution acknowledging her leading role in her field. Dr. Balkhy has served on the External Affairs Committee for SHEA and has been recently elected on the board of trustees for SHEA as the international councilor.

  • Develop MNP formulation contains Terminalia bellirica extracts to treats burn patients infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Detection and genotyping of Coronaviruses circulating in Riyadh groundwater, wastewaters and environmental samples
  • Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of High-Risk Uropathogenic E. coli Clones ST38 and ST131 in Saudi Arabia
  • Occurrence and Survival of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) on Intensive Care Unit ICU’s Inanimate Surfaces using Disc-Based Carrier test
  • pilot study to perform molecular profiling of the neutralizing antibody repertoire in convalescent plasma of MERS-corona virus infected patients
  • Assessment of potential risk factors for infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among health care personnel in a health care setting
  • Antibiotics Prophylaxis for Surgical Site Infection: Systematic Review, Metaanalysis and GRADE Profiling for Cesarean Section, Breast Canser, Colectomy, Appendectomy Surgery
  • Antibiotics Prophylaxis for Surgical Site Infection: Systematic Review, Metaanalysis and GRADE Profiling for Head and Neck, Joint Replacement and Bone Fracture Surgery
  • Antibiotics Prophylaxis for Surgical Site Infection: Systematic Review, Metaanalysis and GRADE Profiling for Cardiac, Vascular, Hysterectomy and Colorectal Surgery
  • Detection of MERS-COV antibodies among samples obtained from Saudi soldiers in different regions before 2012; A cross-sectional, serological study
  • Surveillance Of Antibiotic Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli In Saudi Arabia And Gulf State
  • Determinants and Predictors of non-compliance with HH among HCW at KAMC- Riyadh
  • Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Patients, Residents and Physicians of Appropriate Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance in KSA
  • Quantitative Measurement of Antimicrobial use and its Association with antimicrobial Resistance in gram-negative organisms at intensive care units (ICUs) in KAMC- Riyadh
  • Reason for Non-Compliance with Treatment among Viral Hepatitis Patients in KSA
  • Understanding the Virulence of Major Lineages of Uropathogenic E-Coli
  • New Title: Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection among National Guard Population in Saudi Arabia
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Human Diarrheal Viruses “Astrovirus and Nerovirus Infections”
  • National Study on the Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Characterization of Rotavirus Infection in Children
  • Molecular Genetics of Multi Drug Resistant Bacteria at National Guard Hospital
  • Studying the anticancer activity of novel Nano-liposomal formulation encapsulated a mushroom extract called glucan
  • Cancer-targeted pH modulators as a new approach to overcome multidrug resistance
  • Liposomal-thymoquinone formulations enhances aminoglycoside antibiotics activity and reduce its toxicity
  • Manuka honey liposomal formulations to enhance gentamicin and tobramycin antibiotics activity
  • Develop MNP formulation contains Terminalia bellirica extracts to treats burn patients infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Balkhy HH, Sabella C, Goldfarb J. Parvovirus: a review. Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases 1998 May; 47(3): 4-9.
  • Balkhy HH and Heinzel FP. Endotoxin fails to induce IFN-gamma in endotoxin tolerant mice: deficiencies in both IL-12 heterodimer production and IL-12 responsiveness. J Immunol 1999 March; 162: 3633-3638.
  • Balkhy HH, Schreiber J. Severe Lacrosse Meningoencephalitis with significant neurologic sequelae. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000 Jan; 19(1): 77-80.
  • Osoba OA, Balkhy HH, Memish Z, Khan MY, AL-Thagafi A, Al- Shareef B, Al-Mowallad A, Oni GA. Diagnostic value of Brucella ELISA IgG and IgM in bacteremic and non-bacteremic patients with brucellosis. J Chemother Apr; 13 Suppl 1:54-9.
  • Balkhy HH. Traveling with children: the pre-travel assessment. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2003; Feb;21(2):193-9.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish Z, Osoba A.  Meningococcal carriage among local inhabitants during the pilgrimage 2000-2001. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2003; Feb;21(2):107-11.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish Z. Rift Valley Fever: An Uninvited Zoonosis to the Arabian Peninsula. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2003; Feb;21(2):153-7.
  • Almuneef M, Memish ZA, Al Shaalan M, Al Banyan E, Al-Alola S, Balkhy HH. Brucella Melitensis Bacteremia in Children: A Review of 62 cases. Journal of Chemotherapy 2003; Feb;15(1):76-80.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish Z, Rich M. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Neisseria Gonorrhoea in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  J Chemother. 2003 Feb;15(1):95-6.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish Z, Almuneef M. Effect of intensive surveillance on cesarean-section wound infection rate in a Saudi Arabian hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2003 Aug;31(5):288-90.
  • Tamimi W, Hajeer A, Qasem L, Alkhashan A, Alsohabani A, Bernvil S, Balkhy HH, Memish Z. Expansion of Saudi blood donor pool by better screening and vaccination practices. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003 Nov;10(6):1159-60.
  • Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Shibl AM, Barrozo CP, Gray GC. Streptococcus pneumoniae in Saudi Arabia: antibiotic resistance and serotypes of recent clinical isolates. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004 Jan;23(1):32-8.
  • Memish ZA, Balkhy HH. Brucellosis and international travel. J Travel Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;11(1):49-55.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish ZA, Abed E, Qasem L, Amer AB, Masoud S, Hajeer AH. Saudi National Guard donor screening for human T cell lymphotropic virus I/II: time to use molecular biology techniques. Mil Med. 2004 March; 169(3):251-3.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish, Maha Almuneef A, Osoba A. Neisseria meningitides W-135 carriage during the Hajj season 2003: Effect of changing the vaccination strategy on nasopharyngeal carriage. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36(4):264-8.
  • Almuneef MA, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Alotaibi B, Algoda S, Abbas M, Alsubaie S. Importance of screening household members of acute brucellosis cases in endemic areas. Epidemiol Infect. 2004 Jun;132(3):533-40.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish ZA, Muneef MA, Bafakeer S. Influenza a common viral infection among Hajj pilgrims: time for routine surveillance and vaccination. J Travel Med. 2004 Mar-Apr;11(2):82-6.
  • Almuneef MA, Memish ZA, Abbas MF, Balkhy HH. Screening healthcare workers for Varicella Zoster: can we trust the history? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004 Jul;25(7):595-8.
  • Almuneef M, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Alalem H, Abutaleb A. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in a pediatric intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia: a 30-month prospective surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004 Sep;25(9):753-8.
  • Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Francis C, Cunnigham G, Alhajeer A, Almuneef MA. Al-Khurma Hemorrhagic Fever: A case report of adequate infection control precision preventing disease transmission. Br J Biomed Sci. 2005;62(1):37-9.
  • Arabi Y, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Francis C, Ferayan A, Al Shimemeri A, Almuneef MA.. Ventriculostomy-associated infections: incidence and risk factors. Am J Infect Control. 2005 Apr;33(3):137-43.
  • Alsubaie S, Almuneef M, Alshaalan M, Balkhy HH, Albanyan E, Alola S, Alotaibi B, Memish ZA. Acute brucellosis in Saudi families: Relationship between brucella serology and clinical symptoms. Int J Infect Dis. 2005 Jul;9(4):218-24.
  • Balkhy HH, Cunningham G, Francis C, Almuneef MA, Stevens G, Akkad N, Elgammal A, Alassiri A, Furukawa E, Chew FK, Sobh M, Daniel D, Poff G, Memish ZA. A National Guard outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia infection and colonization secondary to intrinsic contamination of albuterol nebulization solution. Am J Infect Control. 2005 Apr;33(3):182-8.
  • Almuneef MA, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Hijazi O, Cunningham G, Francis C. Rate, risk factors and outcomes of catheter-related bloodstream infection in a paediatric intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. J Hosp Infect 2006 Feb;62(2):207-13.
  • Almuneef M, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Alotaibi B, Helmy M. Chickenpox complications in Saudi Arabia: Is it time for routine varicella vaccination?
    Int J Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 27.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish ZA, Shibl A, Elbushier A and Osoba A. In Vitro activity of quinolones against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and m. catarrhalis in Saudi Arabia. EMHJ. 2005:11:36-4.
  • Almuneef MA, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Qahtani M, Alotaibi B, Hajeer A, Qasim L, Al Knawy B. Epidemiologic shift in the prevalence of Hepatitis A virus in Saudi Arabia: A case for routine Hepatitis A vaccination. Vaccine. 2006 May 11.
  • Balkhy HH, Cunningham G, Chew FK, Francis C, Al Nakhli DJ, Almuneef MA, Memish ZA. Hospital- and community-acquired infections: a point prevalence and risk factors survey in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia.
    Int J Infect Dis. 2006 Jul;10(4):326-33.
  • Balkhy HH, Al-Hajjar S. Avian influenza: are our feathers ruffled?
    Ann Saudi Med. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):175-82.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish ZA, Almuneef MA, Al-Haj-Hussein BT, Bukhari AI, Osoba A Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Hajj pilgrims. Saudi Med J. 2006 Sep;27(9):1367-72.
  • Almuneef MA, Memish ZA, Balkhy HH, Otaibi B, Helmi M. Seroprevalence survey of varicella, measles, rubella, and hepatitis A and B viruses in a multinational healthcare workforce in Saudi Arabia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Nov;27(11):1178-83.
  • Balkhy HH, Memish ZA, Almuneef MA, Cunningham GC, Francis C, Fong KC, Nazeer ZB, Tannous E. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a 5-year review of surveillance data in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007 Aug;28(8):976-82.
  • Balkhy HH. Avian Influenza: The tip of the iceberg. Annals of Thoracic Medicine. 2008 Oct-Dec;3(4):153-6.
  • Memish ZA, Stephens G, Balkhy HH, Cunningham G, Francis C, Poff G; and Saudi National Guard Infection Prevention and Control Group. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia bacteremia in immunocompetent children caused by contaminated nebulized sulbutamol in Saudi Arabia. Am J Infect Control. 2009 Jun;37(5):431-2.
  • Balkhy HH. The Inevitable! An emergence of a new influenza virus. Annals of Thoracic Medicine. 2009 Jul;4(3):109-10.
  • Balkhy HH, Abolfotouh MA, Al-Hathlool RH, Al-Jumah MA. Awareness, attitudes and practices related to the swine influenza pandemic among the Saudi public. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Feb 28;10:42
  • Balkhy HH. Alsaif S, El-Saed A, Khawajah M, Dichinee R, Memish ZA. Neonatal rates and risk factors of device-associated bloodstream infection in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Am J Infect Control. 2010 Mar 38(2):159-61.
  • Al-Otaibi BM, El-Saed A, Balkhy HH. Influenza vaccination among healthcare workers at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: facing challenges. Ann Thorac Med. 2010 Apr; 5(2):120-1.
  • Abou Elella R, Najm HK, Balkhy HH. Buliard L, Kabbani MS. Impact of bloodstream infection on the outcome of children undergoing cardiac surgery. Pediatr Cardiol. 2010 May; 31(4)489-9.
  • Al Johani SM, Akhter J, Balkhy HH. El-Saed A, Younan M, Memish Z. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative isolates in an adult intensive care unit at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2010 Sept-Oct; 30(5):364-9.
  • Balkhy HH, El-Saed A, Sallah M. Epidemiology of H1N1 (2009) Influenza vaccination among healthcare workers at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia: a 6- month surveillance study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Oct 31(10):1004-10.
  • El Saed A, Al-Otaibi B, Balkhy HH. Authors’ reply. Ann Thorac Med. 2010 Oct; 5(4) 250-1.
  • Balkhy HH. El-Beltagy K, El-Saed A, Sallah M, Jagger J. Benchmarking of percutaneous injuries at a teaching tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia relative to United States hospitals participating in the Exposure Prevention Infection Network (EPINet). Am J Infect Control. 2011 Feb;1-6 (Article in Press).
  • Ahmed GY, Balkhy HH, Bafaqeer S, Al-Jasir B, Althaqafi A. Acceptance and adverse effects of H1N1 vaccinations among a cohort of National Guard Health Care Workers during the 2009 Hajj season. BMC Res Notes. 2011 Mar 13;4:61.
  • Al-Jumah M, Abolfotouh MA, Alabdulkareem IB, Balkhy HH, Al-Jeraisy MI, Al-Swaid AF, Al-Musaaed EM, Al-Knawy B. Public attitude towards biomedical research at outpatient clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J. 2011 Jun;17(6):536-45.
  • El-Saed A, Sayyari A, Hejaili F, Sallah M, Dagunton N, Balkhy H. Higher access-associated bacteremia but less hospitalization among Saudi compared with US hemodialysis outpatients. Semin Dial. 2011 Jul-Aug;24(4):460-5.
  • Balkhy HH, El Beltagy KE, El-Saed A, Sallah M, Jagger J. Benchmarking of percutaneous injuries at a teaching tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia relative to United States hospitals participating in the Exposure Prevention Information Network. Am J Infect Control. 2011 Sep;39(7):560-5.
  • Tayeb HT, Balkhy HH, Aljohany SM, Elbanyan E, Alalola S, Alshaalan M. Increased prevalence of rotavirus among children associated gastroenteritis in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Virol J. 2011 Dec 18;8(1):548.
  • Balkhy HH, El-Saed A, Al Johani SM, Francis C, Al-Qahtani AA, Al-Ahdal MN, Altayeb HT, Arabi Y, Alothman A, Sallah M The epidemiology of the first described carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: how far do we go? Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Aug;31(8):1901-9.
  • Al-Dorzi HM, El-Saed A, Rishu AH, Balkhy HH, Memish ZA, Arabi YM.The results of a 6-year epidemiologic surveillance for ventilator-associated pneumonia at a tertiary care intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. Am J Infect Control. 2012 Feb 6. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Balkhy HH, Bawazeer MS, Kattan RF, Tamim HM, Al Johani SM, Aldughashem FA, Alem HA, Adlan A, Herwaldt LA. Epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp associated healthcare infections and colonization among children at a tertiary care hospital in Saud Arabia: A 6-year retrospective cohort study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Apr 5. [Epub ahead of print].
  • El Beltagy K, El-Saed A, Sallah M,Balkhy HH. Impact of infection control educational activities on rates and frequencies of percutaneous injuries (PIs) at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2012 Aug;5(4):297-303.
  • Aly M, Balkhy HH. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates from Gulf Corporation Council countries. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2012 Jul 19;1(1):26.
  • Balkhy H. Paving the road for public health initiatives. J Infect Public Health. 2012 Oct;5(5):319-20.
  • Al-Thaqafy MS, Balkhy HH, Memish Z, Makhdom YM, Ibrahim A, Al-Amri A, Al-Thaqafi A. Improvement of the low knowledge, attitude and practice of hepatitis B virus infection among Saudi national guard personnel after educational intervention. BMC Res Notes. 2012 Oct 30;5:597.
  • Al Jahdali H, Ahmed AE, Balkhy HH, Baharoon S, Al Hejaili FF, Hajeer A, Memish Z, Binsalih S, Al Sayyari AA. Comparison of the tuberculin skin test and Quanti-FERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-G) test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in dialysis patients. J Infect Public Health. 2013 Jun;6(3):166-72.
  • El-Saed A, Balkhy HH, Al-Dorzi HM, Khan R, Rishu AH, Arabi YM. Acinetobacter is the most common pathogen associated with late-onset and recurrent ventilator-associated pneumonia in an adult intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2013 Mar 18.
  • El-Saed A, Balkhy HH, Weber DJ. Benchmarking local healthcare-associated infections: Available benchmarks and interpretation challenges. J Infect Public Health. In press 2013.
  • Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, Al-Rabiah FA, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Barrak A, Flemban H, Al-Nassir WN, Balkhy HH, Al-Hakeem RF, Makhdoom HQ, Zumla AI, Memish ZA. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 25. doi:pii: S1473-3099(13)70204-4.
  • Zowawi HM, Balkhy HH, Walsh TR, Paterson DL. β-Lactamase Production in Key Gram-Negative Pathogen Isolates from the Arabian Peninsula. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013 Jul;26(3):361-80.
  • Al-Thaqafy MS, Balkhy HH, Memish Z, Makhdom YM, Ibrahim A, Al-Amri A, Al-Thaqafi A. Hepatitis B virus among Saudi National Guard Personnel: Seroprevalence and risk of exposure. J Infect Public Health. 2013 Aug;6(4):237-45.
  • Balkhy HH The emergence of a new corona virus—MERS-CoV: Hind sight is always 20/20. Editorial. J Infect Public Health. In press. Published online 08 July 2013.
  • Balkhy HH, Miller TL, Ali S, Nuzzo JB, Kentenyants K, El-Saed A, McNabb SJ. Compliance with Postexposure Screening and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Healthcare Workers in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Feb;35(2):176-81.
  • Mortell M, Balkhy HH, Tannous EB, Jong MT. Physician ‘defiance’ towards hand hygiene compliance: Is there a theory-practice-ethics gap? J Saudi Heart Assoc. 2013 Jul;25(3):203-8.
  • Cotten M, Watson SJ, Kellam P, Al-Rabeeah AA, Makhdoom HQ, Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Alhakeem RF, Madani H, AlRabiah FA, Al Hajjar S, Al-nassir WN, Albarrak A, Flemban H, Balkhy HH, Alsubaie S, Palser AL, Gall A, Bashford-Rogers R, Rambaut A, Zumla AI, Memish ZA. Transmission and evolution of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study. 2013 Dec 14;382(9909):1993-2002.
  • El-Saed A, Balkhy HH. The risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection in different catheter insertion sites: evidence versus guidelines. Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep;41(9):e239-40.
  • Aly M, Tayeb HT, Al Johani SM, Alyamani EJ, Aldughaishem F, Alabdulkarim and Balkhy HH. Genetic diversity of OXA-51-like genes among multi drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 2014 Jul;33(7):1223-1228.
  • Balkhy HH, MD, Miller TL, Ali S, Nuzzo JB, SM; Kentenyants K, El-Saed A, McNabb SJ. Compliance with Postexposure Screening and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Healthcare Workers in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia. ICHE 2014 Feb;35(2):176-81.
  • Arabi YM, Arifi AA, Balkhy HH, Najm H, Aldawood AS, Ghabashi A, Hawa H, Alothman A, Khaldi A, Al Raiy B. Clinical Course and Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients With Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. Ann Intern Med. 2014:160(6):389-97.
  • Memish ZA, Al-Tawfiq JA, Makhdoom HQ, Al-Rabeeah AA, Assiri A, Alhakeem RF, Alrabiah FA, Hajjar SA, Albarrak A, Flemban H, Balkhy H, Barry M, Alhassan S, Alsubaie S, Zumla A Screening for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Hospital patients and their Health care Worker and Family Contacts: a prospective descriptive study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Jan 24.
  • Cotten M, Watson SJ, Zumla AI, Makhdoom HQ, Palser AL, Ong SH, Al Rabeeah AA, Alhakeem RF, Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Albarrak A, Barry M, Shibl A, Alrabiah FA, Hajjar S, Balkhy HH, Flemban H, Rambaut A, Kellam P, Memish ZA.Spread, circulation, and evolution of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.MBio. 2014 Feb 18;5(1). pii: e01062-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01062-13.
  • Zowawi HM, Sartor AL, Balkhy HH, Walsh TR, Al Johani SM, Aljindan RY, Alfaresi M, Ibrahim E, Aljardani A, Al-Abri S, Alsalman J, Dashti AA, Kutbi AH, Schlebusch S, Sidjabat HE, Paterson DL Molecular Characterization of Carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council: Dominance of OXA-48 and NDM Producers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Mar 1(ahead of print).
  • Balkhy HH, Zingg W. Update on infection control challenges in special pediatric populations. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 11.
  • Balkhy HH, El-Saed A, Maghraby R, Al-Dorzi HM, Khan R, Rishu AH, Arabi YM Drug-resistant ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Ann Thorac Med. 2014 Apr;9(2):104-11.
  • Rosenthal VD, Maki DG, Mehta Y, Leblebicioglu H, Memish ZA, Al-Mousa HH, Balkhy H. et al. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortiu (INICC) report, data summary of 43 countries for 2007-2012. Device-associated module. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Sep;42(9):942-56.
  • Al-Thaqafy MS, El-Saed A, Arabi YM, Balkhy HH. Association of compliance of ventilator bundle with incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator utilization among critical patients over 4 years. Ann Thorac Med. 2014 Oct;9(4):221-6. doi: 10.4103/1817-1737.140132.
  • Uz Zaman T, Aldrees M, Al Johani SM, Alrodayyan M, Aldughashem FA, Balkhy HH. Multi-drug carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection carrying the OXA-48 gene and showing variations in outer membrane protein 36 causing an outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;28:186-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.05.021. Epub 2014 Sep 19.
  • Abolfotouh MA, Salam M, Bani-Mustafa A, White D, Balkhy HH. Prospective study of incidence and predictors of peripheral intravenous catheter-induced complications. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014 Dec 8;10:993-1001.
  • Al-Thaqafy MS, El-Saed A, Arabi YM, Balkhy HH. Association of compliance of ventilator bundle with incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator utilization among critical patients over 4 years. Ann Thorac Med. 2014 Oct;9(4):221-6.
  • Uz Zaman T, Aldrees M, Al Johani SM, Alrodayyan M, Aldughashem FA, Balkhy HH. Multi-drug carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection carrying the OXA-48 gene and showing variations in outer membrane protein 36 causing an outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;28:186-92.
  • El-Helaly M, Khan W, El-Saed A, Balkhy HH. Pre-employment screening of latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers using tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold test at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2014 Nov-Dec;7(6):481-8.
  • Balkhy HH, El-Saed A, Maghraby R, Al-Dorzi HM, Khan R, Rishu AH, Arabi YM. Drug-resistant ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Ann Thorac Med. 2014 Apr;9(2):104-11.
  • Al-Dorzi HM, Matroud A, Al Attas KA, Azzam AI, Musned A, Naidu B, Govender T, Yeni Z, Abarintos C, White D, Balkhy H, Arabi YM. A multifaceted approach to improve hand hygiene practices in the adult intensive care unit of a tertiary-care center. J Infect Public Health. 2014 Jul-Aug;7(4):360-4.
  • Zowawi HM, Sartor AL, Sidjabat HE, Balkhy HH, Walsh TR, Al Johani SM, AlJindan RY, Alfaresi M, Ibrahim E, Al-Jardani A, Al Salman J, Dashti AA, Johani K, Paterson DL. Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: dominance of OXA-23-type producers. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Mar;53(3):896-903.
  • Aly M, Al Khairy A, Al Johani S, Balkhy H. Unusual rotavirus genotypes among children with acute diarrhea in Saudi Arabia. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Apr 17;15:192.
  • Zowawi HM, Abedalthagafi M, Mar FA, Almalki T, Kutbi AH, Harris-Brown T, Harbarth S, Balkhy HH, Paterson DL, Hasanain RA.The Potential Role of Social Media Platforms in Community Awareness of Antibiotic Use in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: Luxury or Necessity?J Med Internet Res. 2015 Oct 15;17(10):e233.
  • Khan R, Al-Dorzi HM, Tamim HM, Rishu AH, Balkhy H, El-Saed A, Arabi YM. The impact of onset time on the isolated pathogens and outcomes in ventilator associated pneumonia.J Infect Public Health. 2015 Oct 9.
  • Alghoribi MF, Gibreel TM, Farnham G, Al Johani SM, Balkhy HH, Upton M. Antibiotic-resistant ST38, ST131 and ST405 strains are the leading uropathogenic Escherichia coli clones in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Oct;70(10):2757-62.
  • Abu-Madi M, Aly M, Behnke JM, Clark CG, Balkhy H. The distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in isolates from Qatar. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Sep 17;8:465.
  • Arabi YM, Harthi A, Hussein J, Bouchama A, Johani S, Hajeer AH, Saeed BT, Wahbi A, Saedy A, AlDabbagh T, Okaili R, Sadat M, Balkhy H. Severe neurologic syndrome associated with Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV).Infection. 2015 Aug;43(4):495-501.
  • El-Helaly M, Balkhy HH, Waseem K, Khawaja S. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function among health-care workers exposed to cleaning and disinfectant chemicals, a 2-year follow-up study. Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Nov 2. pii: 0748233715610043.
  • Arabi Y, Balkhy H, Hajeer AH, Bouchama A, Hayden FG, Al-Omari A, Al-Hameed FM, Taha Y, Shindo N, Whitehead J, Merson L, AlJohani S, Al-Khairy K, Carson G, Luke TC, Hensley L, Al-Dawood A, Al-Qahtani S, Modjarrad K, Sadat M, Rohde G, Leport C, Fowler R. Feasibility, safety, clinical, and laboratory effects of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a study protocol. Springerplus. 2015 Nov 19;4:709.
  • Balkhy H. MERS CoV: A trigger for healthcare transformation. J Infect Public Health. 2016 Jan-Feb;9(1):1-2.
  • Arabi YM, Fowler R, Bright RA, Van Kerkhove MD, Balkhy HH. Knowledge gaps in therapeutic and non-therapeutic research on the Middle East respiratory syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2016 Feb;4(2):93-4.
  • Balkhy HH, Alenazi TH, Alshamrani MM, Baffoe-Bonnie H, Al-Abdely HM, El-Saed A, Al Arbash HA, Al Mayahi ZK, Assiri AM, Bin Saeed A. Notes from the Field: Nosocomial Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in a Large Tertiary Care Hospital – Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Feb 19;65(6):163-4.
  • Khan R, Al-Dorzi HM, Al-Attas K, Ahmed FW, Marini AM, Mundekkadan S, Balkhy HH, Tannous J, Almesnad A, Mannion D, Tamim HM, Arabi YM. The impact of implementing multifaceted interventions on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Infect Control. 2016 Mar 1;44(3):320-6.
  • Arabi YM, Fowler R, Balkhy HH. Proceedings of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus research initiative workshop, September 9-10 2015 in Riyadh, KSA. J Infect Public Health. 2016 Mar 29. pii: S1876-0341(16)30017-X.
  • Arabi YM, Balkhy HH, Hayden FG, Hui DS, Van Kerkhove MD, Fowler RA. The search for therapeutic options for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). J Infect Public Health. 2016 Mar 31. pii: S1876-0341(16)30016-8.
  • El-Saed A, Al-Jardani A, Althaqafi A, Alansari H, Alsalman J, Al Maskari Z, El Gammal A, Al Nasser W, Al-Abri SS, Balkhy HH. Ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in critical care units in 3 Arabian Gulf countries: A 6-year surveillance study. Am J Infect Control. 2016 Mar 31. pii: S0196-6553(16)00148-6.
  • Balkhy HH, Assiri AM, Mousa HA, Alabri SS, Al-Katheeri H, Alansari H, Abdulrazzaq NM, Aidara-Kane A, Pittet D. The strategic plan for combating antimicrobial resistance in Gulf Cooperation Council States.J Infect Public Health. 2016 Apr 19. pii: S1876-0341(16)30014-4.
  • Arabi Y, Deeb AM, Aqeel H, Balkhy H. PubMed-cited research articles on the Middle East respiratory syndrome.Ann Thorac Med. 2016 Apr-Jun;11(2):112-3. doi: 10.4103/1817-1737.180024.
  • Balkhy HH, Perl TM, Arabi YM. Preventing healthcare-associated transmission of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Our Achilles heel. J Infect Public Health. 2016 May-Jun;9(3):208-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.04.006.
  • Khan RM, Al-Dorzi HM, Al Johani S, Balkhy HH, Alenazi TH, Baharoon S, Arabi YM. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus on inanimate surfaces: A risk for health care transmission. Am J Infect Control.2016 Jun 20. pii: S0196-6553(16)30434-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.05.006. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Arabi YM, Al-Enezi F, Longuere KS, Balkhy HH, Al-Sultan M, Al-Omari A, Al-Hameed FM, Carson G, et al. Feasibility of a randomized controlled trial to assess treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Saudi Arabia: a survey of physicians.BMC Anesthesiology. 2016 Jul 12;16(1):36. doi:10.1186/s12871-016-0198-x.
  • Balkhy HH, El Beltagy K, El-Saed A, et al. Comparison of QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube test versus tuberculin skin test for screening of latent tuberculosis infection in Saudi Arabia: A population-based study.Annals of Thoracic Medicine. 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):197-201. doi:10.4103/1817-1737.185759.
  • Hajeer AH, Balkhy H, Johani S, Yousef MZ, Arabi Y. Association of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles with severe Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infection. Annals of Thoracic Medicine. 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):211-213. doi:10.4103/1817-1737.185756.
  • Arabi YM, Hajeer AH, Luke T, Raviprakash K, Balkhy H, Johani S, et al. Feasibility of Using Convalescent Plasma Immunotherapy for MERS-CoV Infection, Saudi Arabia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016 Sep;22(9):1554-1561. doi:10.3201/eid2209.151164.
  • Al Nasser W, El-Saed A2, Al-Jardani A, Althaqafi A, Alansari H, Alsalman JMaskari ZA, El Gammal A, Al-Abri SS, Balkhy HH. Rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in tertiary care hospitals in 3 Arabian Gulf countries: A 6-year surveillance study. Am J Infect Control. 2016 Sep 28. pii: S0196-6553(16)30731-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.06.030. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Balkhy HH, El-Saed A, Sanai FM, Alqahtani M, Alonaizi M, Niazy N, Aljumah A. Magnitude and causes of loss to follow-up among patients with viral hepatitis at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health.2016 Oct 6. pii: S1876-0341(16)30101-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.06.012.
  • Balkhy HH, Alenazi TH, Alshamrani MM, Baffoe-Bonnie H, Arabi Y, Hijazi R, Al-Abdely HM, El-Saed A, Al Johani S, Assiri AM, Bin Saeed A. Description of a Hospital Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in a Large Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.2016 Oct;37(10):1147-55. doi: 10.1017/ice.2016.132. Epub 2016 Jul 18.
  • Al-Dorzi HM, Aldawood AS, Khan R, Baharoon S, Alchin JD, Matroud AA, Al Johany SM, Balkhy HH, Arabi YM. The critical care response to a hospital outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection: an observational study. Ann Intensive Care.2016 Dec;6(1):101. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

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