Publication Details

Title :

Effects of Sodium Hypochlorite Concentration and Temperature on the Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Heat-treated Nickel-titanium Rotary Instruments


Journal of Endodontic

Impact Factor:



Hussam Alfawaz 1, Abdullah Alqedairi 1, Hala Alsharekh 1, Eman Almuzaini 1, Shahd Alzahrani 1, Ahmed Jamleh 2


1 Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2 King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Restorative and Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Year of Publication:






We tested the cyclic fatigue resistance of heat-treated instruments immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution under different concentrations and temperature conditions.


Based on the irrigating solution’s concentration and temperature, 135 ProTaper Gold (PTG; Dentsply Sirona, York, PA) F2 instruments were divided equally into 9 groups of 15. Cyclic fatigue testing was performed by using a block with artificial canals with a curvature angle of 60°, a curvature radius of 5 mm, and a curvature center 5 mm from the instrument tip. The block was fixed inside a water bath of distilled water, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or 5.25% NaOCl. The temperature was preset at 25°C, 37°C, or 60°C. The instrument was rotated at 300 rpm until fracturing occurred. The number of cycles to fracture was calculated, and the fragment length was measured. Fractured surfaces were examined via scanning electron microscopy. NCF data were analyzed statistically via Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software Version 22 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) at a 5% significance level.


The number of cycles to fracture of the PTG F2 was highest in distilled water at 25°C and lowest in 5.25% NaOCl at 60°C. Changing the irrigating solution from distilled water to NaOCl and increasing the surrounding temperature reduced the fatigue resistance.


NaOCl irrigating solution at different concentrations and temperatures influenced the cyclic fatigue resistance of PTG instruments. Future NiTi instrument failure studies should be conducted under simulated body temperature conditions in commonly used irrigating solutions.