Sleep deprivation: prevalence and associated factors among adolescents in Saudi Arabia
Nasim M1, Saade M1, AlBuhairan F2.
1 King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
2 Aldara Hospital and Medical Center, Saudi Arabia; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: falbuhairan@ALDARAMED.COM.
Year of Publication:
A limited number of studies have examined sleep deprivation (SD) among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This study estimates SD prevalence and associated factors within a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
A secondary data analysis of Jeeluna®, a national cross-sectional school-based survey, was undertaken. Jeeluna assessed health risk behaviors and health status among adolescents (aged 10-19 years) in schools across Saudi Arabia. Based on self-reports of daily average sleep duration, binary logistic regression was used to investigate potential association among SD, socio-demographics, and various health behavior factors.
Data from 12,121 adolescents (male 51%, female 49%) were analyzed. Early- and middle-stage adolescents constituted the majority (81%) of the sample. SD (sleep <7 h/day) was reported by 46% on weekdays and 33% on weekends. Three-fourths of all adolescents reported feeling unrefreshed on awakening. The adjusted odds ratio (A-OR) for SD was higher for adolescents of older age (18-19 years) (OR 1.18, CI 1.05-1.32), female gender (OR 1.23, CI 1.14-1.34), lower perceived socioeconomic status (OR 1.51, CI 1.28-1.78), and those eating less than three main meals per day (OR 1.17, CI 1.09-1.27). In contrast, A-ORs were lower among adolescents reporting television and computer screen exposure of ≥2 h per day (OR 0.81, CI 0.75-0.88; OR 0.83, CI 0.77-0.91), and those taking daytime naps (≥3 days) per week (OR 0.87, CI 0.81-0.94).
Sleep deprivation is highly prevalent among adolescents in Saudi Arabia, with reported prevalences being higher on weekdays versus weekends. The study identifies multiple associated factors that can inform preventive strategies and programs to support adolescent sleep and well-being.