Potential proapoptotic phytochemical agents for the treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer
Ahmed K1,2, Zaidi SF1,2, Cui ZG3,4, Zhou D4, Saeed SA1,2, Inadera H3.
1 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah 21423, Saudi Arabia.
2 King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Jeddah 21423, Saudi Arabia.
3 Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
4 Graduate School of Medicine, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000, P.R. China.
Year of Publication:
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality among men and women. Chemo-resistance, adverse effects and disease recurrence are major challenges in the development of effective cancer therapeutics. Substantial literature on this subject highlights that populations consuming diets rich in fibers, fruits and vegetables have a significantly reduced incidence rate of CRC. This chemo-preventive effect is primarily associated with the presence of phytochemicals in the dietary components. Plant-derived chemical agents act as a prominent source of novel compounds for drug discovery. Phytochemicals have been the focus of an increasing number of studies due to their ability to modulate carcinogenic processes through the alteration of multiple cancer cell survival pathways. Despite promising results from experimental studies, only a limited number of phytochemicals have entered into clinical trials. The purpose of the current review is to compile previously published pre-clinical and clinical evidence of phytochemicals in cases of CRC. A PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct search was performed for relevant articles published between 2008-2018 using the following key terms: ‘Phytochemicals with colorectal cancers’, ‘apoptosis’, ‘cell cycle’, ‘reactive oxygen species’ and ‘clinical anticancer activities’. The present review may aid in identifying the most investigated phytochemicals in CRC cells, and due to the limited number of studies that make it from the laboratory bench to clinical trial stage, may provide a novel foundation for future research.