Incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes children in western Saudi Arabia: 11-year experience
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism
Al Shaikh A1,2, Farahat F2, Saeedi M2, Bakar A2, Al Gahtani A2, Al-Zahrani N2, Jaha L2, Aseeri MA2, Al-Jifree HM2, Al Zahrani A2.
1 King Abdulaziz Medical City, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, P.O. Box 9515, Jeddah 21423, Saudi Arabia.
2 King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Year of Publication:
Background A wide range of reports on the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children have been published worldwide. Reports from Saudi Arabia are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical pattern and severity of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1DM and the association of autoimmune conditions with initial DKA occurrence at King Abdulaziz Medical City – Jeddah. Methods This retrospective chart review was conducted during the period 2005-2015. All newly diagnosed T1DM children during the study period were investigated (n = 390). Data were collected on the demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), DKA severity, length of hospital stay and follow-up data on the type of diabetes therapy. Results The incidence of DKA among newly diagnosed T1DM pediatric patients was 37.7% (n = 147). Moderate and severe DKA cases were significantly higher among female children (p = 0.04). Patients diagnosed with DKA had lower BMI (20.87 ± 5.21) than their counterparts (p = 0.03). The median length of hospital stay was higher among severe DKA compared to moderate and mild cases (5.0, 4.5 and 4.0 days, respectively). Conclusions The incidence of DKA among newly diagnosed T1DM is still high compared to developed countries; however, it is relatively lower than previous reports in Saudi Arabia. Immediate interventions, such as awareness campaigns, are vital to reduce the burden of this preventable health sequela among children with DM.