Publication Details

Title :

Comparison of Insulin Pump Therapy and Multiple Daily Injections Insulin Regimen in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes During Ramadan Fasting


Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics

Impact Factor:



Alamoudi R1, Alsubaiee M2, Alqarni A3, Saleh Y4, Aljaser S4, Salam A5, Eledrisi M6.


1 Department of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal National Guard Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

2 Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz National Guard Hospital, Alhasa, Saudi Arabia.

3 Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz National Guard Hospital, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Alhasa, Saudi Arabia .

4 Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

5 Biostatistics Unit, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Alhasa, Saudi Arabia.

6 Department of Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Year of Publication:




Fasting Ramadan carries a high risk for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Data on the optimum insulin regimen in these patients are limited.
To compare glucose profiles in patients with T1DM who use continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) compared with those who use multiple daily injections (MDI) insulin regimen during Ramadan fast. The primary outcome was rates of hypoglycemia. Other outcomes included glycemic control, number of days needed to break fasting, and acute glycemic complications.
Patients with T1DM who were on CSII or MDI and decided to fast Ramadan were recruited. Glucose data collected using self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) were compared in the two groups, CSII and MDI, and glucose control was assessed by measuring serum fructosamine levels.
A total of 156 patients were recruited, 61 on CSII and 95 on MDI. There was no difference in the rate of mild hypoglycemia <4.4 mmol/L (<80 mg/dL) (8.6% ± 6.1% in the CSII group and 9.85% ± 9.34% in the MDI group, P = 0.96). The mean rate of severe hypoglycemia <2.7 mmol/L (<50 mg/dL) was also not different in both groups (0.99% ± 1.7% in the CSII group compared to 1.7% ± 4.7% in the MDI group, P = 0.23). There was no difference in glycemic control as measured by fructosamine levels or the number of days that patients have to stop fasting. Glucose variability was significantly better in CSII group (SMBG; standard deviation [SD] 66.9 ± 15.3 vs. 76.9 ± 29.9, P = 0.02) (CGM; SD 68.1 ± 19.6 vs. 78.7 ± 24.9, P = 0.04). No diabetic ketoacidosis was reported in either group.
In patients with T1DM who fast Ramadan, there was no difference in rates of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia between CSII and MDI. However, CSII was associated with less glucose variability.